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Over the last decades we’ve seen a remarkable increase in knowledge on the biology and biochemistry of flavour and fragrance (F&F) formation in nature. With the advent of modern biotechnology and the use of -omics technologies, functional characterisation of genes, proteins and metabolites involved in F&F biosynthesis has become more and more sophisticated. The application of these technologies boosts our understanding of the genetic, biochemical and cellular fundamentals of the natural synthesis of the desired compounds. This information can be harnessed for improving aroma generation during food and beverage fermentation processes or in bioprocesses targeting specific F&F products. For the latter, great advances in systems biology, metabolic and enzyme engineering now enable access to develop microbial cell factories for the production of economically attractive F&F compounds. Complementary to the biological aspects, process engineering is equally important to improve existing or to establish completely new industrial bioprocesses. Finally, the recognised shift towards a bioeconomy and the push in the chemical industry to develop green and sustainable processes confirm the strategic importance of biotechnology. In this context biotechnology is recognised as providing the tools and expertise to establish sustainable production routes starting from renewable resources rather than relying on fossil material.