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Cosmology is about understanding the origin and evolution of the universe and the formation of all structure within it — one of the most challenging intellectual projects undertaken by humanity. To make progress, we need the most powerful mathematical methods available: analytics to guide us through subtle theoretical issues, simulations to compute the detailed quantitative predictions of the theory, and statistical inference to confront these predictions with large cosmological data sets. The IHP trimester entitled “Analytics, Inference, and Computation in Cosmology,” will be dedicated not only to the “what” and the “why” but also, and specifically, to the “how” of cosmological calculation. Is the mathematical toolset of cosmology adequate for the challenges ahead? Where do we need new ideas? Whether it be on advances in analytical techniques, innovative computational methods or new ways to infer cosmological information from cosmological data, this trimester will be an occasion to gather the leading experts from around the world to share their expertise, spark new ideas and collaborations, and equip the next generation of cosmologists with the innovative mathematical tools we need as we enter a new era in precision cosmology. The trimester will consist of an introductory school in Corsica followed by a three month programme at the IHP in Paris.