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Over the last two decades, the surveys mapping the Universe have made clear that star-formation activity peaks about 10 billion years ago (known as ‘cosmic noon’). The driver of this behaviour is still an open area of research. A better understanding of star-forming regions and physical processes is required to explain its rise and fall around ‘cosmic noon’. With existing observational resources, we are able to resolve many detailed questions about the physical processes driving galaxy formation and evolution, including: - The enrichment of interstellar medium (ISM) with metals and dust and their effects on star-formation - Gas infall from and outflow to the intergalactic medium - The role of galaxy environment and mergers - Triggering mechanisms of starbursts and active galactic nuclei and their feedback to the surrounding medium - The role and impact of gas dynamics and stellar kinematics Cosmological simulations (Illustris, EAGLE, FIRE) indicate that the ISM and its constituents are important to understand galaxy formation but are poorly constrained. The discrepancy between observations and simulations is because the roles and physics of the above-mentioned processes are not well understood.