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We are living in a nuclear era of unprecedented changes. For decades, arms control and nonproliferation were a large part of the answer to the crucial question of containing the dangers created by nuclear weapons. Years of bilateral and multilateral negotiations gradually built up an extensive architecture of arrangements designed to promote stability, limit arms racing, prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, provide mechanisms for crisis management, combat nuclear terrorism, address regional nuclear dangers, and contribute to confidence building between adversaries. Today, the existing arms control and nonproliferation infrastructure is eroding while deteriorating relationships between nuclear powers and striking technological advances are raising new risks. Can arms control be adapted to the emerging technological era? Meanwhile, as indicated by the adoption of the UN treaty banning nuclear weapons, much of the world demands nuclear disarmament. What are the politics and prospects for eliminating nuclear weapons?