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The imprecisions inherent in most nanomaterials preclude in-depth understanding of their properties and the way they function, including mechanistic understanding of catalysis at surfaces, interfacial charge transfer in energy flow, fluorescence blinking in quantum dots, and spin canting in magnetic nanoparticles. In all cases, the details of core and surface structures must be known for thorough understanding of the above fundamental issues, which remain unclear or unknown in many cases. Thus, designing, synthesizing and testing nanoparticles (0D), nanowires (1D), and ultrathin layers (2D) that have atomically precise structures is a critical next-step for advancing nanomaterials of metals, oxides, and other compounds. This GRC is intended to bring together top researchers from around the globe working in the area of "atomically precise nanomaterials". Progress inspired by these researchers and the next generation of researchers in this area will bring nanoscience research to the ultimate level - "atomic precision". Much like organic/biological chemistry, where large molecules such as DNA and proteins are understood and manipulated with atomic precision, the establishment of precise structure-property relationships in nanomaterials will revolutionize the field. On the practical side, research in this field could lead to new efficient catalysts for water splitting and CO2 reduction; new devices for atomic-scale electronics; spin-based quantum computing; new imaging methods for biomedical detection, sensing, and therapeutics.