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The regulation of scale and proportion is a fundamental attribute of life. Yet, the molecular, cellular and systems-level mechanisms regulating these processes remain largely unknown. How is organ size achieved in animals during normal development, and how is it reconstituted in animals capable of regenerating organs and body parts lost to injury? Are the mechanisms regulating size and allometry evolutionarily conserved? In recent years, discoveries in the fields of signaling, physiology, developmental biology and regeneration using a growing and diverse collection of model organisms have begun to shed mechanistic insight into these problems. This meeting aims to delineate the molecular and cellular basis of growth and regeneration by highlighting, comparing and contrasting the differences and similarities in scale and proportion mechanisms and stem cell management among diverse animal species. How these biological findings may inform regenerative medicine and stem cell biology and therapeutics will be considered and discussed.