Although the realm of mitochondrial dynamics continues to expand as discoveries mount regarding its importance in physiology and medicine, we still do not understand why it is crucial to maintain eukaryotic cell integrity, and we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms and regulation involved. This topic is attracting more and more interest and an increasing number of investigators as the critical role of mitochondrial dynamics has been found very recently to impact innate immunity, cell division and chemoresistance. This Keystone Symposia meeting will thus highlight the latest advances in diverse disciplines including neurology, aging, cancer research, autophagy, membrane morphogenesis, structural biology and bioenergetics. The program groups the best senior and junior scientists in these disciplines to break down barriers between different fields of research and promote innovation. As the most important discoveries in mitochondrial dynamics lie ahead, the interactions at this meeting should play a key role in their advance.