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The formation and evolution of globular cluster (GC) systems is still an unsolved problem of modern astrophysics despite years of study. New observations have revealed that the distribution of sizes, masses and mass-to-light ratios of small stellar systems is largely continuous thanks to the discovery of a growing number of ultracompact dwarf galaxies and related objects, all of which have properties remarkably similar to GCs. At the same time, steady progress is being made in characterising the properties of GC systems, not only in our own Milky Way, but also in a growing number of local Universe galaxies. All these new observations add new pieces to the puzzle of how and where GCs form, starting as early as the epoch of reionization within the first billion years after the Big Bang, and then continuing through the hierarchical assembly of their host galaxies. GC systems are also providing new insight on the properties of galaxy halos at large radii. Simulations have now reached the size and mass scales relevant for direct modelling of GC system formation in a cosmological context. This meeting will bring together the leading observers and theorists from diverse backgrounds to review the current state of the field, discuss existing scenarios, and stimulate the exploration of new collaborative proposals for future modeling and for observations with next-generation telescopes.