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The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a master regulator of cell growth throughout eukaryotes. In photosynthetic organisms, TOR integrates signals originating from nutritional, biotic and abiotic stresses to drive and adjust plant growth, metabolism and development, contributing to anabolic and catabolic cellular processes such as protein biosynthesis, transcription, ribosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Recent data indicate that hormones play more significant role in upstream regulation of TOR pathway in plants rather than in mammals. TOR impacts both short- and long-term reprogramming of translational landscape. At this EMBO Workshop, a growing awareness that TOR signaling and TOR complex composition in plants is more diverse and critical than previously appreciated will allow synergistic discussions and networking between scientists working on plant growth, development, metabolism and defense signaling with the aim to develop new scientific concepts and experimental approaches to explore the various roles of TOR and its integration with the particular metabolism and lifestyle of autotrophic organisms.