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Effect of isometric exercises on the masseter muscle in older adults with missing dentition: a randomized controlled trial

Effect of isometric exercises on the masseter muscle in older adults with missing dentition: a randomized controlled trial

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Maintaining oral function in older individuals with missing teeth is important for leading a healthy and independent life. This study aimed to evaluate whether simple isometric exercises can maintain and improve the oral function [maximum occlusal force (MOF) and masticatory ability (MA)] and the masticatory muscle properties [masseter muscle thickness (MMT) and echo intensity (MMEI)] in older adults during the maintenance phase of removable prosthetic treatment. Participants were randomly categorized into the intervention and control groups. The mouthpieces were distributed, and participants were instructed to use them for exercising. The intervention group was instructed to perform maximum clenching for 10 s, whereas the control group was instructed to tap the teeth at an arbitrary speed for 10 s. Both were repeated five times at an interval of 5 s between each activity and twice daily for 4 weeks. The outcomes were measured after a month of exercise. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in the MOF, MMT during contraction, MMT at rest and MMEI during contraction. There were no significant differences in the MA and MMEI at rest. In the control group, no improvement was observed in any of the parameters. When the isometric exercises were performed using a mouthpiece, there was an improvement in the oral function and masseter muscle properties in older individuals with Eichner B status who used dentures.

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