Embryogenesis: Elucidating cellular responses to force: Mechanical force induces phosphorylation-mediated signaling that underlies tissue response and robustness in Xenopus embryos

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Accumulated evidence suggests that physical force plays an important role in various developmental processes of fertilized animal eggs. During embryogenesis, a variety of cell populations actively migrate and change their positions, generating various types of force (e.g., traction force, compression force) that influence the properties of surrounding tissues. This in turn enables normal development where tissue arrangement is highly orchestrated. However, how embryonic cells and tissues respond to these forces remains poorly understood.

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